Education of "Homo Sovieticus" in Ukraine: Committee for State Security against schoolchildren (1960-1970's)
Keywords:school, family, upbringing, Committee for State Security, "Homo Sovieticus", anti-Soviet behavior, leaflets, unification
Examples of "anti-Soviet" behavior of schoolchildren in Ukraine during the 1960-1970s are analyzed in the article based on the materials of the State Archives Department of the Security Service of Ukraine and interviews conducted by the author. The ambivalence of family and school education as factors of upbringing of "Homo Sovieticus" is characterized.
Communist education set an ambitious goal to form a generalized canonical image of the "respectable person". Standing out was not only condemned, but also attracted attention of the Committee for State Security, regardless the child's age. Among the unauthorized actions there are the following: distribution of leaflets, inscriptions on the walls, anonymous letters, condemnation of the foreign policy of the USSR, display of Ukrainian symbols, stylisation, membership in religious communities (sectarianism), disruption or distortion of portraits of leaders and visual agitation, creation of unauthorized organizations, clubs, groups.
The forms and methods of the Committee for State Security, in combating anti-Soviet behavior of schoolchildren are revealed in the article. The Committee for State Security, found various reasons to explain the students' anti-Soviet behavior, such as medical diagnoses, games of children, lack of ideological education at school, negative influence of family, watching foreign films, listening to prohibited media channels (both interpreted as a motive of behavior and as an independent misconduct), influence of bourgeois propaganda, nationalist ideas and religious views. These motives would have to show that deviations from the norm associated with insignificant short-term influences, are not an indicator of the mistakes in the policy of juvenile communist education. However, each document of the Committee for State Security, about "anti-Soviet behavior" has personal resolution of the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, regardless the age of the child who committed the action.The utopia of attempts to educate appropriate Soviet schoolchild under the conditions of "Khrushchev Thaw" and "Era of Stagnation" is stipulated. It has been argued that anti-Soviet behavior of schoolchildren was not only manifestation of juvenile maximalism, but also evidence of more significant socio-political crisis in the Soviet society of the 1960 -1970s, including those related to national issues.
Ivanytska, E.I. (2016), One by one with a state lie. Formation of socio-political convictions of the late Soviet generations in the conditions of state ideology, Publishing Solutions, Moscow, 332 p. (rus)
Kharhordin, O. (2016), To reveal and to hypocrite. Genealogy of the Russian personality, The European University at Saint Petersburg publishing house, Saint Petersburg, 508 p. (rus)
Yurchak, A. (2014), Everything Was Forever, Until It Was No More: The Last Soviet Generation, New literary review, Moscow, 604 p. (rus)
Lifton, Robert Jay (2015), Technology of brainwashing. Psychology of totalitarianism, Vivat, Kharkiv, 416 p. (ukr)
State Archives Department of the Security Service of Ukraine, fond 16, opys 1, sprava 944, 249 p. (rus)
State Archives Department of the Security Service of Ukraine, fond 16, opys 1, sprava 951 (rus)
State Archives Department of the Security Service of Ukraine, fond 16, opys 1, sprava 954, 369 p. (rus)
State Archives Department of the Security Service of Ukraine, fond 16, opys 1, sprava 955, 301 p. (rus)
State Archives Department of the Security Service of Ukraine, fond 16, opys 1, sprava 961, 311 p. (rus)
State Archives Department of the Security Service of Ukraine, fond 16, opys 1, sprava 964, 327 p. (rus)
State Archives Department of the Security Service of Ukraine, fond 16, opys 1, sprava 988 (rus)
State Archives Department of the Security Service of Ukraine, fond 1, opys 1, sprava 1513, 41 p. (rus)
Interview with Serhii Horbachov by Yurii Kahanov. 21.08.2017.
Interview with Viktor Diadkovych by Yurii Kahanov. 03.08.2017.
Interview with Mykhailo Romanyshyn by Yurii Kahanov. 01.08.2017
Interview with Viktor Chyhryn by Yurii Kahanov. 14.08.2017.
Sermyazhko, E.I. (2013), Public-state and family education: opportunities and perspectives (notes), Bulletin of the Mogilev State University named after A.A. Kuleshov. Series C. Psycho-pedagogical sciences: pedagogy, psychology, technique, № 2(42), pp. 5-18 (rus)
Central State Archives of Public Organizations of Ukraine, fond 1, opys 73, sprava 751, 179 p. (ukr)
Central State Archives of Public Organizations of Ukraine, fond 1, opys 25, sprava 1507, 97 p. (ukr)
Central State Archives of Public Organizations of Ukraine, fond 1, opys 25, sprava 1686, 131 p. (ukr)
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 Yurii Kahanov
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
1. Authors bear responsibility for the accuracy of facts, quotations, numbers and names used.
2. Manuscripts are not sent back.
3. The publisher does not always agree with the authors' opinion.
4. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.
5. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.