Religious Affiliation and the Elective Abortion Attitudinal Variations Among Young Adults




Religion, Religious Affiliation, Religious Adherence, Norms, Elective Abortion


This study aims to determine if there is a significant difference in attitudes toward elective abortion as a social taboo among young adults when considering their religious affiliation and their extent of religious adherence by drawing from the Social Learning Theory and the Moral Communities Hypothesis. The findings highlight the importance of recognizing the diverse attitudes toward elective abortion among individuals within the predominantly Catholic Philippines. A self-administered online survey questionnaire was utilized in this study. A non-probability convenience sampling method was employed ensuring the major religious groups are represented. To examine whether an attitudinal variation exists when considering religious affiliation and the extent of religious adherence among the sample population of sixty (n = 60), a chi-square (χ²)  test of independence was employed. The same was done considering the classificatory variables of sex and marital status. The results showed that attitudes toward elective abortion varied significantly among respondents when considering their religious affiliations (p = < .001), and when dichotomized into Catholic and non-Catholic groups, proportions still varied significantly (p = < .001), with most of the Catholic respondents exhibited a pro-choice attitude. Conversely, most of the non-Catholic respondents exhibited a pro-life attitude. Likewise, attitudes toward elective abortion varied significantly among respondents when considering their extent of religious adherence (p = < .001). Understanding this diversity is crucial for evidence-based policy recommendations and interventions related to bodily autonomy and sexual and reproductive rights, as well as for promoting transparency and well-informed discussion on taboos such as abortion.


Adamczyk, A. (2022). Religion as a Micro and Macro Prop-erty: Investigating the Multilevel Relationship between Religion and Abortion Attitudes across the Globe. Euro-pean Sociological Review, 38(5), 816-831.

Adamczyk, A., Kim, C., & Dillon, L. (2020). Examining Public Opinion about Abortion: A Mixed‐Methods Systematic Review of Research over the Last 15 Years. Sociological Inquiry, 90(4), 920-954.

Adamczyk, A., & Valdimarsdóttir, M. (2018). Understanding Americans' abortion attitudes: The role of the local reli-gious context. Social Science Research, 71, 129-144.¬2017.12.005

Aves, J. C. (2020). Special Release - Men and Women Sta-tistics - Misamis Oriental. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved from¬article/special-release-men-and-women-statistics-misamis-oriental

Bird, M., Begun, S., & McKay, K. (2018). Religiosity and Personal Beliefs Regarding Abortion: Results from a Survey of Social Work Students in the United States. Women’s Reproductive Health, 5(2), 117-131.

Carvalho, J. de, & Ossorio, D. F. (2021). A Comprehensive Analysis of Social Learning Theory Linked to Criminal and Deviant Behavior. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 11(2).

Cislaghi, B., & Heise, L. (2018). Theory and practice of so-cial norms interventions: eight common pitfalls. Global-ization and Health, 14(1), 83.

Clarke, E. V., Sibley, C. G., & Osborne, D. (2023). Examining Changes in Abortion Attitudes Following the Transition to Parenthood. Sex Roles.

Durkheim, É., & Wellesley College Library. (1915). The ele-mentary forms of religious life, a study in religious sociolo-gy. Wellesley College Library.

Facts on Abortion in the Philippines: Criminalization and a Gen-eral Ban on Abortion. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Fetterolf, J., & Clancy, L. (2023). Support for legal abortion is widespread in many countries, especially in Europe. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from

Francis, L. J., McKenna, U., & Sahin, A. (2019). Religion, Human Rights and Matters of Life and Death: Exploring Attitude Toward Abortion and Euthanasia Among Ado-lescents in England and Wales. Religion and Human Rights, 139-159. https:/

Frohwirth, L., Coleman, M., & Moore, A. M. (2018). Managing Religion and Morality Within the Abortion Experience: Qualitative Interviews With Women Obtaining Abortions in the U.S. World Medical & Health Policy, 10(4), 381-400. https:/¬10.1002/wmh3.289

Goncena, A. (2020). Reproductive Health in the Philippines: Poverty, Religiosity, and Navigating Reproductive Choices. Chapman University Digital Commons.

Handout 1: Stages of Faith Development. (n.d.). Unitarian Universalist Association. Retrieved from

Hatun, D., & Yılmaz, M. (2020). Religiosity and Public Atti-tudes toward Abortion among Turkish Adults: From an Islamic Perspective. Sakarya Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 433-456. https:/

Holman, M., Podrazik, E., & Silber Mohamed, H. (2020). Choosing Choice: How Gender and Religiosity Shape Abortion Attitudes among Latinos. The Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics, 5(2), 384-411. https:/

Horne, C., & Mollborn, S. (2020). Norms: An integrated framework. Annual Review of Sociology, 46(1), 467–487. https:/

Jacobs, R. J., Kane, M. N., & Fritz, K. (2023). Predictors of Abortion Attitudes in Medical Students After the Reversal of Roe v. Wade. Cureus. https:/

Jozkowski, K. N., Crawford, B. L., & Hunt, M. E. (2018). Com-plexity in Attitudes Toward Abortion Access: Results from Two Studies. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 15(4), 464-482. https:/

Jozkowski, K. N., Crawford, B. L., & Willis, M. (2020). Abor-tion Complexity Scores from 1972 to 2018: A Cross-Sectional Time-Series Analysis Using Data from the General Social Survey. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 18(1), 13-26. https:/

Kamitsuka, M. D., & Peters, R. T. (2022). T&T Clark Reader in Abortion and Religion: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Perspectives. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Loll, D., & Hall, K. S. (2018). Differences in abortion attitudes by policy context and between men and women in the World Values Survey. Women & Health, 59(5), 465-480.

Manik, S., Sembiring, M., Padang, I., & Manurung, L. (2022). Theory of bandura’s social learning in the process of teaching at sma methodist berastagi kabupaten karo. Jurnal Visi Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, 3(2), 85-96.

Mapa, D. (2023) Religious Affiliation in the Philippines (2020 Census of Population and Housing). Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved from

Morales, E. (2018). Predictors of Medical Students’ Attitudes Towards Abortion and Their Changes Overtime. Sociol-ogy & Criminal Justice.

Natividad, M. D. F. (2018). Catholicism and Everyday Mo-rality: Filipino women’s narratives on reproductive health. Global Public Health, 14(1), 37-52.

Osborne, D., Huang, Y., Overall, N. C., Sutton, R. M., Petter-son, A., Douglas, K. M., Davies, P. G., & Sibley, C. G. (2022). Abortion Attitudes: An Overview of Demographic and Ideological Differences. Political Psychology, 43, 29-76.

Perez, J. R. M., Monteagudo, G. R. S., Nebrada, P. J. C., Arevalo, M. V. P. N., De la Paz, E. P., Ho, F. D. V., & Pa-dilla, C. R. A. (2023). The spectre of unsafe abortions in the Philippines. The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific, 32, 100655.

Perković, R., Hrkać, A., Dujić, G., Ćurlin, M., & Krišto, B. (2019). The Influence of Religiosity and Personality Di-mensions on the Attitudes about Abortion. Psychiatria Danubina, 31(Suppl 5), 805–813. PMID: 32160176

Poolkumlung, R., Rongkapich, R., Sinthuchai, N., San-tibenchakul, S., Meevasana, V., & Jaisamrarn, U. (2023). Knowledge, attitude, and intended practice of abortion among medical students in Thailand after the amend-ment of the Thai abortion law. Contraception: X, 5, 100091.

Public Opinion on Abortion. (2022). Pew Research Center. Retrieved from


Rivera, C. J., Lauger, T. R., & Cretacci, M. A. (2018). Religi-osity, Marijuana Use, and Binge Drinking: A Test of the Moral Community Hypothesis. Sociology of Religion, 79(3), 356-378.

Rye, B. J., & Underhill, A. (2020). Pro-choice and Pro-life Are Not Enough: An Investigation of Abortion Attitudes as a Function of Abortion Prototypes. Sexuality & Cul-ture, 24(6), 1829-1851.

Saadeh, R., Alfaqih, M., Odat, A., & Allouh, M. Z. (2021). Attitudes of Medical and Health Sciences Students to-wards Abortion in Jordan. BioMed Research International, 2021, 1-7.

Selebalo-Bereng, L., & Patel, C. J. (2018). Reasons for Abor-tion: Religion, Religiosity, Spiritually and Attitudes of Male Secondary School Youth in South Africa. Journal of Religion and Health, 58(6), 2298-2312.

Sheard, J. (2018). Quantitative data analysis. Research Methods, 429–452.

Siedlecki, S. L. (2020). Understanding Descriptive Research Designs and Methods. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 34(1), 8–12. Research Gate. https:/ 10.1097/nur.0000000000000493

Song, J., Notice, M., & Robertson, J. (2018). Punishment in Social Learning Theory. Encyclopedia of Couple and Family Therapy, 1-3.

Stark, R. (1996). Religion as Context: Hellfire and Delin-quency One More Time. Sociology of Religion, 57(2), 163.

Stokłosa, M., Stokłosa, I., Porwolik, M., Bugajski, M., Więc-kiewicz, G., Męcik-Kronenberg, T., Piegza, M., Pudlo, R., & Gorczyca, P. (2021). Mercy Procedure or a Nightmare? Attitude towards Pregnancy Termination among Polish University Students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(1), 213. 10.3390/ijerph19010213

The islamic position on abortion. (2019). Retrieved from


UN Treaty Bodies Call for the Philippines to Decriminalize Abortion and Protect Adolescents’ SRHR. (2022). Center for Reproductive Rights. Retrieved from


Upreti, M., & Jacob, J. (2019). The Philippines’ Criminal Restrictions on Abortion and the CEDAW Committee’s Role in Strengthening Calls for Reform. Canadian Woman Studies, 33(1-2). Retrieved from




How to Cite

Velez, D. A., & Angcla , C. T. (2024). Religious Affiliation and the Elective Abortion Attitudinal Variations Among Young Adults. Skhid, 6(2), 28–36.