Economic systems: scientific cognition methodology and classification criteria
Keywords:basis and superstructure, economic system humanistic constituent, socioeconomic formation, civilization, economic system, economic laws
The paper explores methodological approaches to determination of the essence and criteria of economic system classification. Among diversified approaches to classification of economic systems two major ones are identified, namely formational and civilizational. Researchers' views of the relation between these approaches are reviewed.
It is reasoned that out of the two methodological approaches to periodization of economic systems the formational one is the most correct technique from the scientific viewpoint. It is more complete compared to the civilizational approach as it allows for all basic and superstructural elements of the economic system. In addition, basing on the method of abstraction in cognition of the essence of the phenomenon under consideration, it identifies its master elements - production forces and production relations. It is known that the main place in the production force system belongs to the man. It is therefore incorrect to consider that the formational approach ignores the man and a humanistic constituent of the economic system.
The development logic of society (social and economic systems) is as follows:
- development of production forces brings about development of economic relations, property relations;
- property relations promote production of commodities through the economic interest;
- development of commodity production results in formation of socially oriented market economy;
- the highest development stage of socially oriented market economy is information economy;
- the economic system of the present-day capitalism undergoes socialization of production relations, which leads to development of immediate social production, to a new socioeconomic formation.
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