THE REFLECTION ON THE CONCEPT OF UNIVERSALS AND ITS SOCIAL-HISTORICAL VERIFICATION
Keywords:universals, conceptual-normative paradigm, social contract theory, laissez-faire doctrine, liberal-conservative order in Europe
In this article, the author reviews the concept of singular and general. The analysis focus on the problem of universals during social-historical transformation. The author illustrates the manifestation of universals as a category during the Antiquity and the Modern era. The author argues that the shift in perception of Natural law, making an individual the central unit of analysis, happened during the Modernity. This shift leads to the creation of the concept of the social contract and the development of the idea that the will of individuals within a given society has to be the state's law.
Therefore, a historical paradox occurred, where private property and laissez-faire economic doctrine simultaneously became the causes for development and a foundation for objection to the conceptional-nominalist paradigm. The consecutive historical development was connected with mass attempts of different social groups to implement individual freedom, anti-etatism, rationalism. This led to shaping the social paradigm of modernity as well as to moderate conservative way of thinking and recognizing the practical falsity of extreme forms realism and nominalism.
This influence of various social groups resulted in the establishment of moderate conservatism in the contemporary social paradigm and the invalidation of radical realism and nominalism. This fact is confirmed by the dominance of liberal-conservative consensus in Modern Europe. Synthesizing the different approaches to the historical experience of formation and evolution of realism and nominalism, it also explores the role and significance theoretical reflection on Universals in the process of social reconstruction.
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