QUALITATIVE INQUIRY INTO THE PRACTICE OF INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA
Keywords:instructional leadership, transformational leadership, public secondary school, effective school leadership
AbstractEducational or school outcomes are strongly associated with the quality and/or relevance of leadership style used by principals and its possible influence on the level of teacher job satisfaction. To attain the goals of the school, the principal needs to engage in an effective leadership style to inspire and encourage teachers. The aim of this study is to investigate the public school leadership practice in the theoretical view of instructional leadership and transformational leadership styles. Both theories have been found to encompass leadership practices that enhance teacher job satisfaction and student achievement. Qualitative case study research design was used to investigate the issue. The study participants were selected purposefully from the public school principals and teachers. In this research 34 participants were selected, 24 teaches and 10 principals from the 65 schools. The research participants were interviewed using the semi-structure interview quastions. The data analysis was done concurrently with the interview sessions were takes place. ATLASti version8 was used to organized and generate the codes and themes of the study. Based on the themes the study results were discussed. Addis Ababa public school principals were not fully implemented the instructional leadership and transformational leadership behaviors. The school leadership and management practice was interfered by politicians to execute ruling party interest in the school. Principals were not assigned by their profession and performance, afflation to the ruling party was mandatory to be the school principal. As the result of this teachers were not satisfied and motivated. Teaching and learning was not effectively supported by the school leaders. Thus, study participants perceived that the school leadership was traditional and not practice effective school leadership style like instructional and transformational leaderships style. The study participants stated that transformational leadership behaviour and instructional leadership style have a positive impact on teacher job satisfaction, work commitment and better school performance. In this study, as suggested by the teachers, transformational leadership is a favourable leadership style in order for schools to become effective in their activities. They also agreed that such leadership behaviour is strongly related to improving student achievement.
Abdo, H.A. (2000). Teacher incentives in the Middle East and North Africa Region: The shortcomings. Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies, 6(1):107-122.
Abdullah, J.B. & Kassim, J.M. (2011). Instructional leadership and attitude toward organizational change among secondary school’s principal in Pahang Malaysia. Procedia Social and Behavioural Science, 15: 3304-3309. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.290
Addis Ababa Education Bureau. (2018). Education Statistics Annual Abstract. Addis Ababa. Retrieved from: http://www.aaceb.gov.et (Accessed: 24 September 2018).
Avolio, B.J. & Bass, B.M. (2002). Developing potential across a Full Range of Leadership Cases on Transactional and Transformational Leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410603975
Aydin, A., Sarier, Y.& Uysal, S. (2013). The effect of school principals Leadership style on teachers’ organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Educational Science: Theory & Practice, 13(2): 806-811.
Balyer, A. (2012). Transformational Leadership Behaviour of School Principal: A Qualitative research based on teachers’ perceptions. International Online Journal of Educational Science, 4(3): 581-591.
Bass, B.M, Avolio, B.J, Jung, D.I., & Benson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2): 207-218. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.207
Bass, B.M. (1999). Two Decades of Research and Development in Transformational Leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1): 9-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/135943299398410
Bass, B.M., & Riggio, R.E. (2006). Transformational Leadership. 2nd edition. New York: Psychology Press.
Burns, J.M. (1979). Leadership. New York: Harper and Row.
Bush, T. & Glover, D. (2014). School Leadership Models: What do we know. School Leadership & Management, 34 (5): 553-571. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2014.928680
Center For British Teachers & VSO. (2008). Study into Teacher Utilization in the Regions of Ethiopia (STURE). Addis Ababa: UNDP.
Davis, J.& Wilson, S.M. (2000). Principals’ efforts to empower teachers: Effects on teacher motivation and job satisfaction and stress. The Clearing House, 73(6):349-353. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00098650009599442
Dutta, V.& Sahney, S. (2016). School leadership and its impact on student achievement: The mediating role of school climate and teacher job satisfaction. International Journal of Educational Management. 30(6): 941-958. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ijem-12-2014-0170
Edmonds, R. (1979). Effective Schools for the Urban Poor. Educational Leadership. 37(1):15-24.
Elias, S.H. & Girum, S.T. (2018). Demand and Intake Capacity in Selected Departments of Postgraduate Studies in Addis Ababa University. Journal of Education and Practice. 9 (22): 20-25.
Eyal, O.& Roth, G. (2011). Principals' leadership and teachers' motivation. Journal of Educational Administration, 49 (3): 256-275.
Fekede, T.G. & Tynjälä, P. (2015). Exploring teachers’ motivation for teaching and professional development in Ethiopia. Journal of Studies in Education, 5 (2):169-186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jse.v5i2.7459
Gill, R. (2006). Theory and Practice of Leadership. London: SAGE.
Gort, J.A. (2015). A Qualitative Exploratory Single Case Study of Developing Leadership Behaviours in Business: The Role of Graduate School at Davenport University. (Ph.D.) Dissertation.
Hallinger, P. & Murphy, J. (1985). Assessing the instructional management behaviour of principals. The Elementary School Journal, 86(2):217-248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/461445
Hallinger, P. (2000). A review of two decades of research on the principalship using the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, Washington.
Hallinger, P. (2003). Leading educational change: reflection on the practice of Instructional and Transformational Leadership. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33 (3):329-352. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0305764032000122005
Hallinger, P. (2005). Instructional leadership and the school principal: A passing fancy that refuses to fade away. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 4 (3): 221-239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15700760500244793
Hallinger, P. (2007). Leadership for Learning: Reflections on the practices of instructional and transformational leadership. Paper presented, Seminar at East Asia University.
Hallinger, P., Walker, A., Nguyen, D.T.H., Truoug, T. & Nguyen, T.T. (2017). Perspectives on principal instructional leadership in Vietnam: a preliminary model. Journal of Educational Administration, 55 (2): 222-239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/jea-11-2015-0106
Harris, A., Jones, M., Cheah, K., Devadason, E. & Adams, D. (2017). Exploring principals’ instructional leadership practices in Malaysia: insights and implications. Journal of Educational Administration, 55 (2): 207-221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/jea-05-2016-0051
Hoyt, C.L., Goethals, G.R. & Riggio, R.E. (2006). Leader-follower relations: group dynamics and the role of leadership. The Quest for a General Theory of Leadership. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4337/9781847202932.00012
Ibrahim, M.S. & Wahab, J.A. (2012). Educational Leadership. Bangi: University Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Jita, L.C. (2010). Instructional Leadership for the Improve-ment of Science and Mathematics in South Africa. Procodia-Social and Behavorial Sciences, 9(2): 851-854. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.247
King, D. (2002). The Changing Shape of Leadership. Educational Leadership, 59 (8): 61-63.
Leithwood, K. & Sun, J. (2012). The nature and effects of transformational school leadership: A Meta-analytic review of unpublished research. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48: 387-423. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161x11¬4362¬68.
Limsila, K.& Ogunlana, S.O. (2008). Performance and Leadership outcome Correlates of leadership style and Subordinate commitment. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 15: 164-184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09699980810852682
Loon, M., Lim, Y.M., Lee, T.H. & Tam, C.L. (2012). Transformational Leadership and Job-Related Learning. Management Research Review. 35 (3/4): 192-205. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01409171211210118
Mengistu, G. K. (2012). Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers in Ethiopia. PhD, Dissertation. University of South Africa.
Menon, M.E. (2014). The relationship between transformational leadership, perceived leader effectiveness and teachers' job satisfaction. Journal of Educational Administration, 52: 509-528. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/jea-01-2013-0014
Nasra, M.A. & Heilbrunn, S. (2016). Transformational leadership and Organizational leadership behavior in the Arab educational system in Israel: The impact of trust and job satisfaction. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 44 (3): 380. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143214549975
Nir, E.A., & Hameiri, L. (2014). School Principals Leadership Style and School Outcomes. Journal of Educational Administration, 52 (2): 210-227. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/jea-01-2013-0007
Northouse, P.G. (2016). Leadership፡ Theory and Practice. 7th edition. Thousand Oak, CA: SAGE.
Pan, H.W., Nyeu, F.Y. & Chen, J.S. (2015). Principal instructional Leadership in Taiwan: Lessons from two decades of research. Journal of Educational Administration, 53 (4): 492-511. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/jea-01-2014-0006
Pant, R. (2014). Literacy and Education for Sustainable Development and Women's Empowerment. UNESCO Institute for Life Long Learning.
Pont, B., Nusche, D., & Moorman, H. (2009). Improving School Leadership V. 1: Policy and Practice. OECD. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264167995-lt
Price, H.E. (2012). Principal-teacher interactions how affective relationships shape principal and teacher attitudes. Educational Administrative Quarterly, 48 (1): 39-85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161x11417126
Sarikaya, N. & Erdogan, C. (2016). Relationship between the instructional leadership behaviors of high school principals and teachers’ organizational commitment. Journal of Education and Practice, 7 (3): 72-82.
Selamat, N., Nordin, N. & Adnan, A.A. (2013). Rekindle teachers’ organizational commitment: The effect of Transformational leadership behavior. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 90: 566-574. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.07.127
Shatzer, R.H., Caldarella, P., Hallam, P.R., & Brown, B.L. (2014). Comparing the Effects of Instructional and Transformational Leadership on Student Achievement: Implications for Practice. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 42(2): 445-459. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/174114321350¬2192
Stewong, R. & Prasertcharoensuk, T. (2013). The influence of instructional leadership of school administrators on school effectiveness. Procedia Social and Behavioral Science, (106:) 2859-2865. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.331
Tesfaw, T.A. (2014). The relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction: The case of government secondary school teachers in Ethiopia. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 42 (6): 903-918. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143214551948
Voon, M.L., Lo, M.C., Ngui, K.S. & Ayob, N.B. (2011). The influence of leadership styles on employee’s job satisfaction in public sector organization in Malaysia. International Journal of Business, Management and Social Sciences, 2(1): 24-32.
Wahab, J., Fuad, C., Ismail, H.& Majid, S. (2014). Headmaster transformational leadership and their relationship with teachers' job satisfaction and teachers' commitments. International Educational Studies, 7(13): 40-48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.¬5539/ies.v7n13p40.
Yahaya, R. & Ebrahim, F. (2016). Leadership Styles and Organizational Commitment: Literature Review. Journal of Management Development, 35 (2): 190-216. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/jmd-01-2015-0004
Zorlu, H.& Arseven, A. (2016). Instructional leadership behaviors of school administrations on the implication of secondary school curricula. International Journal of Higher Education. 5(1): 276-291. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v5n1p276
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Elias Sebsibe Haile
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
1. Authors bear responsibility for the accuracy of facts, quotations, numbers and names used.
2. Manuscripts are not sent back.
3. The publisher does not always agree with the authors' opinion.
4. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.
5. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.