The “second” repatriation of the Poles in Stanislav region (1956-1959)
In the article the course of the “second” repatriation of the Poles in Stanislav region during 1956-1959 has been elucidated. The materials of the Ukrainian and Polish archives became the source of the investigation. Most of these documents have been introduced into the scientific usage for the first time. The “second” repatriation was an important milestone in the history of the local Polish minority. It caused a significant reduction of the number of the Poles on the territory of Stanislav region. The article highlights that the preconditions of the “second” repatriation were in the “first” repatriation, which took place during 1944-1946, because families who were willing to reunite were divided by the boundary between Poland and the USSR. The attention was paid to the fact that a new migration became possible due to the regime liberalization in the Soviet Union and diplomatic efforts of the Polish governmental circles. It was highlighted that some of citizens of Poland called their relatives and acquaintances for repatriation and it caused dissatisfaction of the Soviet authorities. The attention was paid to the fact that the citizens of the USSR could visit their relatives in Poland and see real living conditions there. The legal basis of the “second” repatriation was analyzed. The main motives of the Poles’ departure were ascertained. It was remarked that many Jews left for Poland and then for the Western countries and Israel, and it was one of the reason of the Soviet authorities’ hostile attitude to repatriation. It was found out that some repatriates came back to the Soviet Union. The reasons of this phenomenon were analyzed. The repatriation of communists was investigated. Its scale and migrants’ national structure were elucidated. It was found out that the majority of the Poles in Stanislav region didn’t want to leave their little motherland during the “second” repatriation. The motives of such behavior were analyzed. It was remarked that not all who were willing could use the right for repatriation. The approximate number of the Poles who migrated from Stanislav region to Poland was calculated.
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