Oriental technologies in the production of cauldrons of Late Bronze Age
Keywords:the Great Steppe, Late Bronze Age, cauldrons, technology exchange
AbstractThe cultures of «valykova» ceramics occurred in the Great Eurasian Steppe during late Bronze Age. Its signature is a torus on the areola or the throat of clayey vessel. It is found on the crockery of the different cultures from Northern Balkans and Danube region to Altai. Scientists connect the spreading of this decorative element as well as some forms of metal products with Balkan-Carpathian influence. Such type of metalware as cauldrons are of particular interest, since they always and everywhere characterize the level of metalworking of cultures, workshops and masters. Since cauldrons were usually found outside the complexes, according to which chronology and cultural affiliation could be established. Therefore, until recently, they were not included in studies of metal products of cultures of the «valykova» community. But with the increase in the number of these products (40 copies are already known today), and the appearance of new finds of cauldrons in East Kazakhstan in the dated complexes of the Andronovo cultural community, provided scientists with an opportunity to study intercultural relations in the late Bronze Age. It should be noted that all metalware is a complex object for research. In addition to the morphological similarity of forged cauldrons to the forms of pottery in the cultures of the Late Bronze Age, it is necessary to take into account their production technology. The study of the shape of products, their manufacturing technology and ornamentation allowed us to trace the exchange of new ideas in the manufacture of cauldrons. As a result of detailed studying the individual technological methods used by the masters, it is possible to outline the direction of innovation and identify two impulses from east to west. The first is earlier. It began with the production of small cauldrons among the Sintashta and Petrovskaya (Early-Andronovo) cultures of East Kazakhstan, that is, before the addition of the cultures of «valykova» ceramics. It is characterized by the technology of connecting the frame to the pallet, called shrink-fitting, bottom insertion, smoothly processed surface and, sometimes, the absence of handles. Knowledge of this technology is observed from East Kazakhstan through the Volga region and the Don region, and then to the Right-Bank Ukraine. The second is later. This technology originated in the Volga region and spread to the west - through the Don region to the Right-Bank Ukraine. At this stage, the processing technology of the surface of its frame changes, the pallets are attached with rivets, and cast parts appear.
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