DOI: https://doi.org/10.21847/1728-9343.2018.6(158).155048

Some Farmans and Inscriptions: A source of study for waqf in Indian subcontinent

Yaqub Ali Khan

Abstract


Waqf, also known as auqaf, becomes inalienable endowment under Islamic law. This institution is a permanent dedication of movable or immovable property for a specific religious or pious purpose, something sanctified by the Muslim law. The Sultans of Delhi and the Mughal rulers made religious grants by way of Inam, suyurghal and madad-i-m’aash. These grants were always conditional; to be renewed after the death of original grantees. Hence, they lacked permanence, an important ingredient for making of the waqf. However, these very grants led to the creation of the waqf subsequently. An analysis of the data provided by the public records of the pre-colonial times offers important clue to the nature of fiscal rights transferred by the pre-colonial state to the grantees.

There are several documents which reveals the nature and details of the waqf throughout the Indian history but I have confined my study of the Mughal period especially. A farman of Mughal Emperor Akbar is available in which he ordered to the officials of pargana Sambhar (Marwar, Rajputana) to provide oil for lighting the mazar of Khwaja Muinuddin of Ajmer. Another farman comes from the time of Mughal Emperor Jahangir in which he is ordering officials to assign 100 bigha land to Bibi Jan and other widows of saintly persons ofAjmer. 

Another document is of Emperor Farrukh Siyar in which he orders to pay Rs.1/ per day to a saint. There are two inscriptions available which refers to an endowment of the land revenue (mahsul) to a village for the expenses of the annual ‘Urs at the dargah of Shaikh Hamiduddin Mitha Shah of Gagraun, Malwa and the other of Aurangzeb's period inscription in which emperor is ordering to the governor of the place for maintenance of the Jami masjid of the place, a sum of five Bahluli per day to be paid for the said purpose.

The paper seeks to analyze the Persian archival records and some inscriptional data, where the original grants were temporary in nature, but subsequently they developed as fully waqf.

Keywords


Auqaf; Suyurghal; Madad-i-ma’ash; Mazar; Mahsul; Urs; Bahluli

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References


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GOST Style Citations


Abdul Hamid Lahori Padshahnama / Maulvi Kabiruddin (ed.) and Maulvi Abdur Rahim (ed.).Calcutta: Bib.Ind., 1886. II, p. 346.

 

Abdurbar Ma'ni, Asnad-us Sanadid, n.d., Ajmer. p.3

 

Ain-i-Akbari by Abul Fazl. (Eng.translation).

 

Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy, 1955-56. Delhi: Archaeological Survey ofIndia, D-153.

 

Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy, 1965-66,Delhi: ASI, 1986. p.161.

 

Ansari, M. A. Administrative documents of MughalIndia. BR Publishing Corporation; New edition edition, 1996. 241 p.

 

Asfaque Ali. Tarikh-i-Awqaf.Lucknow, 1984. p. 286.

 

Badayuni Abdul Qadir. Muntkhab-ut-Tawarikh / (Trans.).Calcutta: Asiatic Society, Wolseley Haig, 1925. vol-II, p.105.

 

Bashiruddin Ahmad. Farameen-i-Salatin.Delhi, 1926. Рр. 11-12.

 

Bashiruddin Ahmad. Faramin-i-Salatin.Delhi, 1946. Рр. 3-4.

 

Begle W. E. and Desai Z. A. Taj Mahal the illumined Tomb.CambridgeandSeattle: Published by Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture and Univ ofWashingtonPress, 1989. 320 p.

 

Bilgrami Rafat M. Religious and Quasi religious departments of the Mughal period (1556-1707).Delhi, 1984. p.60.

 

Some Farmans, Sanads and Parwanas (1578-1802 A.D.) / Datta K.K. (ed.).Patna: Published under the authority of State Central Records Office, Political Dept., 1962. 153 p.

 

Epigraphia Indica-Arabic and Persian Supplement.Delhi: ASI, 1968. pp. 77-78.

 

Ferishta. Tarikh -i-Farishta, 2 vols., 1323 AH.Lucknow: Nawal Kishore, p. 328.

 

Isami / Futuh-us-Salatin (ed.).Madras: AS Usha, 1946. p. 466.

 

Ibn Battuta. The travels of Ibn Battuta, vol-III / ed. and translated by Sir Hemilton Gibb.Cambridge: The University Press, 1971.

 

Jafri S. Z. H. The Mughal -Nawabi legacy under “Siege” in the age of Empire (1860-1880): Familial grants and the Waqf of Khanqah-i-Karimia.India, Salon, 2017. p. 200.

 

Templesas Landed magnets in early Medieval South India 700-1200 A.D.) in Indian Society / Jha D. N. and Sharma R. S. (ed.). This type of land was granted to the temples, 1976.

 

Mirat-i-Ahmadi: a Persian history ofGujaratby Ali Muhammad Khan / Khan Ali Muhammad Syed Nawab Ali (ed.).Baroda(India): Oriental institute, 1927. p. 70.

 

Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri / Khan Sir Syed Ahmad (ed.). Aligarh, 1863-64. p. 5. URL: https://www.slideshare.net/SaadKhan70/sir-syed-ahmad-khan-32894785.

 

Khan Yaqub Ali. Muslim Monuments of Rajasthan.Delhi, 2011. Pp. 172-73.

 

Kozlowski Gregory. Imperial authority, benefactions and endowments(Awqaf) in Mughal India. Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient. 1995. Vol. 38. Issue 3. DOI: 10.1163/1568520952600425.

 

Maani AbdulBari. Asnad-us-Sanadid, a collection of Sanads.Ajmer: Asnad-us-Sanadid, 1954. p. 204.

 

Mcchesney R. D. Waqf inCentral Asia: Four Hundred Years in the History of a Muslim Shrine, 1480-1889.PrincetonLegasy Library, 2014. p.9.

 

MedievalIndia-A Miscellany.Aligarh, 1972. Vol-2. p.19 n.

 

Comparative study of Waqf from the East: Dynamism of Norm and Practices in religious and Familial Donations / Miura Toru (edited). Tokyo: The Toyo Bunko, 2018. 278 p.

 

Moreland W. H. Agrarian System of MoslemIndia. Delhi, 1968. Р. 277.

 

Nizami Khalid Ahmad. History of the Shattari Silsilah. Ph.D. Thesis. 1963. p. 230. URL: http://ir.amu.ac.in/9220/1/T%20437.pdf.

 

The Tabaqat-i-Akbari / Nizamuddin Ahmed (ed.) and Brajendra Nath De (tr.).Calcutta: Royal Asiatic Society ofBengal, 1927-1940. pp. 355-359.

 

RajasthanStateArchives, Nos.172,1 84 etc.Bikaner. 1972. Descriptive list of Vakil Reports addressed to the rulers of Jaipur, 2 vols.

 

Ma’asir-i-Alamgiri Saqi / Musta’id Khan, Sarkar J. N. (trans.).Calcutta, 1947. p.111.

 

Shaikh Abdul Haq. Akhbar-ul-Akhyar fi-Asrar-ul Abrar, 1863. URL: https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.484889.

 

Sharma R.S. Aspects of political Ideas and Institutions in Ancient India. Delhi, 1959.

 

Shyamal Das. Veer Vinod Deutiya Khand, 1900. II pp. 324, 330-31. URL: https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.545244.

 

Siddiqi Noman Ahmad. Land Revenue Administration under the Mughals (1700-1750).Bombay, 1970. р. 123.

 

State Archives, Govt. Of AP, Hyderabad, 1963: Khan, Yusuf Hussain, Farman and Sanads of the Deccan Sultans.

 

The Encyclopedia of Islam.Leiden: New Edition, 2002. Vol.XI.

 

Tirmizi S. A. I. Ajmer through Inscriptions (1532-1852),Delhi, 1968. p. 19.

 

Muslim shrines inIndia: their character, history and significance / Troll Christian W. (ed.). (Islam inIndia. Studies and Commentaries, iv.) 1989. xvi, 327 pp.

 

Waqai Sarkar Ranthambhor waAjmerAD 1678-80, Asafiya Library,Hyderabad, transcr. In the Department of History, AMU,Aligarh.

 

Wilson H. B. A Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms of British India, London, 1875. p. 455.






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