DOI: https://doi.org/10.21847/1728-9343.2018.6(158).155047

15 years of the Baltic States membership in EU: problems, perspectives and experience for Ukraine

Lukash Donaj, Vitaliy Zavadskyi

Abstract


The article highlights the key provisions of the study of the results ofBaltic Statesmembership in the European Union. Analyzing the geopolitical dimension of European choice, the authors presented a brief discourse of the challenges that arose during the restoration of independence ofLatvia,LithuaniaandEstonia. The factors of the European choice of these countries, which consisted of security, economic and social dimensions, were considered.

The security factor of the European vector of politics was actualized in the desire of political elites to withdraw countries from the sphere of influence ofRussia. In the economic view, countries sought reorientation of economies to Western markets and incorporation into the architecture of trade relations of developed countries of the European Union.

It is noted that thanks to the Euro-Atlantic foreign policy vector and the strict fulfillment of the membership criteria, the Baltic States received access to preferential lending, assistance programs to candidate countries and managed to form one of the most attractive investment climate inEastern Europe.

Using key statistical indicators of the World Bank, Eurostat resource, analytical materials from leading audit company KPMG, key economic indicators are analyzed: GDP (in PPP) dynamics compared to other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, wages and retirement benefits. The consideration of economic gains from EU membership is complemented by an analysis of the structure of GDP and the study of the industry specification.

The losses from the process of European integration, which consisted of: significant reduction of industrial production, unprofitability of agriculture, emigration of the population aged 25 to 35 years, were also identified.

The attitude of residents to EU membership has been studied using the results of the annual surveys of the European service "Eurobarometer". It was found that in 2018, the positive attitude of residents ofLatvia,LithuaniaandEstoniadid not actually change compared to 2004. The charts available in the article also allow us to determine that the level of euroskepticism in the countries in question has not significantly changed compared to the first year of membership in the EU.

The authors propose algorithms for taking Ukraine into account the experience of the Baltic States on the path to full membership.94(4)+ (442)63-6

Keywords


Baltic States; EU; results; membership; Ukraine; experience

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bilonozhko, S. V., 2015. Western vector of the foreign policy of the Baltic countries: the path from independence to Eurointegration. Scientific works of the Historical Faculty of Zaporizhzhya National University. Vol. 44: 130-135 (ukr).

Vorotnikov, V. V., 2014. Baltic countries in NATO: the results of the decade. Herald of MGIMO-University. № 6: 9-17 (rus).

Zavadsky, V. М., 2008. European Integration of theBaltic States(1991-2004). These of Candidate of historical Science.Donetsk, 2008. 225 p. (ukr).

Kokoriev, O. V., 2016. Positive and negative consequences of transformation in the Baltic States and accession to the EU. Bulletin of Donetsk National University, Series: Political Sciences: 68-71 (ukr).

Pali, O. A. 2002. Specificity and implications of the integration of the Baltic Statesinto Euro-Atlantic security structures. Scientific notes of NaUKMA. Vol. 20: 55-60 (ukr).

Accrued-to-date pension entitlements in social insurance. Available at: http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=nasa_10_pens1&lang=en (Accessed: 18.11.2018).

Agenda 2000, Communication: Reinforcing the pre-accession strategy. Brussels: European Commission, 1997. 120 p.

Investment in the Baltic States - KPMG - Global. Available at: https://www.kpmg.de/docs/InvestmentBalticSeas.pdf (Accessed: 21.12.2018).

Pastore, G. 2011. Europeanization of Foreign Policy of the New Member States: The Case of Latvia. А collection of research papers in conjunction with the international conference “European Integration and Baltic Sea Region: Diversity and Perspectives”, 26-27 September 2011 at the University of Latvia. Litvia. Riga: 59-70.

The World Factbook. Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/214.html#LH (Accessed: 21.12.2018).

Total number of long-term emigrants leaving from the reporting country during the reference year. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=tps00177&plugin=1 (Accessed: 18.11.2018).

Wage and salaried workers. Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ SL.EMP.WORK.MA.ZS?end=2017&start=1991&view=chart (Accessed: 21.12.2018).


GOST Style Citations


Білоножко С. В. Західний вектор зовнішньої політики країн Балтії: шлях від незалежності до Євроінтеграції. Наукові праці історичного факультету Запорізького національного університету. Запоріжжя, 2015. Вип. 44. С. 130-135.

 

Воротников В. В. Страны Балтии в НАТО: итоги десятилетия. Вестник МГИМО-Университета. Москва, 2014. № 6. С. 9-17.

 

Завадський В. М. Європейська інтеграція країн Балтії (1991-2004): дис. … канд. іст. наук: 07.00.02 / Донецький. нац. ун-т. Донецьк, 2008. 225 с.

 

Кокорєв О. В. Позитивні і негативні наслідки трансформації в країнах Балтії та вступу до ЄС. Вісник Донецького національного університету, Серія: Політичні науки. Вінниця, 2016. С. 68-71.

 

Палій О. А. Специфіка та наслідки інтеграції країн Балтії до Євроатлантичних структур безпеки. Наукові записки НаУКМА. Київ, 2002. Том 20. С. 55-60.

 

Accrued-to-date pension entitlements in social insurance. URL: http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=nasa_10_pens1&lang=en (дата звернення 18.11.2018).

 

Agenda 2000, Communication: Reinforcing the pre-accession strategy. Brussels: European Commission, 1997. 120 p.

 

Investment in the Baltic States - KPMG - Global. URL: https:// www.kpmg.de/docs/InvestmentBalticSeas.pdf (дата звернення 21.12.2018).

 

Pastore G. Europeanization of Foreign Policy of the New Member States: The Case of Latvia. А collection of research papers in conjunction with the international conference “European Integration and Baltic Sea Region: Diversity and Perspectives”, 26-27 September 2011 at the University of Latvia. Litvia. Riga, 2011. P. 59-70.

 

The World Factbook. URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/214.html#LH (дата звернення 21.12.2018).

 

Total number of long-term emigrants leaving from the reporting country during the reference year. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=tps00177&plugin=1 (дата звернення 18.11.2018).

 

Wage and salaried workers. URL: https:// data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.EMP.WORK.MA.ZS?end=2017&start=1991&view=chart (дата звернення 21.12.2018).






ISSN 1728-9343 (Print)

ISSN 2411-3093 (Online)