DOI: https://doi.org/10.21847/1728-9343.2018.5(157).148353

Mary Wollstonecraft - first philosopher of feminism

Larisa Menig

Abstract


Mary Wollstonecraft is sometimes called the “Mother of Feminism”. Basically, all her work is related to women's rights. In her book “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” (1792), now considered a classic of feminist history and feminist theory, Mary Wollstonecraft argued primarily for the rights of woman to be educated. Through education would come emancipation.

Keywords


vindication of women's rights; feminism; co-education; women's weakness; dependence; suffering; feeling; mind; intelligent citizenship

Full Text:

PDF

References


Burke, E. 1790. Reflections on the Revolution on France. Available at: https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/macaulay-reflections-on-the-revolution-in-france

Canuel, M. 2010. Wollstonecraft and World Improvement. Wordsworth Circle, Vol. 41, No 3, Summer. Available at: https://www.questia.com/­library/journal/1G1-240729248/wollstonecraft-and-world-improvement

Cayton, Andrew. 2013. Love in the Time of Revolution: Transatlantic Literary Radicalism and Historical Change, 1793-1818, University of North Carolina Press, Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia, 368 pp.

Clemit, P. A. and Walker, G. L. 2001. 'William Godwin, memoirs of the author of 'A vindication of the rights of woman', Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press. Broadview Literary Texts.

Falco M.J. [Ed.] 1996. Feminist Interpretations of Mary Wollstonecraft. Penn State Press. University Park, PA.

Ferguson, M. 1994. Colonialism and Gender from Mary Wollstonecraft to Jamaica Kincaid: East Caribbean Connections. Columbia University Press.

Johnson, C. 2002. The Cambridge Companion to Mary Wollstonecraft. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Kaplan, C. 1985. Pandora’s Box: Subjectivity, Class and Sexuality in Socialist Feminist Criticism. In: Green, G. (Ed.), Kahn, C. (Ed.). (1985). Making a Difference. Routledge. London, 288 p.

Kelly, G. 1992. Revolutionary Feminism: The Mind and Career of Mary Wollstonecraft. St. Martin’s, New York.

Myers, M. 1990. Sensibility and the “Walk of Reason”: Mary Wollstonecraft’s Literary Reviews as Cultural Critique. Dickinson University Press, Rutherford.

O'Neill, W. 2014. The Women's Movement: Feminism in the United States and England. Routlege Library Editions: Women’s History. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203102817

Poovey, M. 1984. The Proper Lady and the Woman Writer: Ideology as Style in the Works of Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelly and Jane Austin. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.

Rousseau, J.-J. 1762. Emile, or On Education. Available at: https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/rousseau-emile-or-education

Sapiro, V. 1992. A Vindication of Political Virtue: The Political Theory of Mary Wollstonecraft. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.

Steinbach, S. 2005. Women in England 1760-1914: A Social History. Orion Publishing Co, London, 352 p.

Taylor, B. 2003. Mary Wollstonecraft and the Feminist Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 331 р.

The Guardian. 2015, October. The Original Suffragette: the Extraordinary Mary Wollstonecraft by Bee Rowlatt. The Women’s Blog, Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/womens-blog/2015/oct/05/original-suffragette-mary-wollstonecraft

Todd, J. 2000. Mary Wollstonecraft: A Revolutionary Life. Columbia University Press. 538 p.

Tomalin, C. 1992. The Life and Death of Mary Wollstonecraft. Penguin, New York.

Wollstonecraft, M. 1795. An Historical and Moral View of the French Revolution; and the Effect It Has produced in Europe. Joseph Johnson, London. 226 p. Available at: https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/wollstonecraft-an-historical-and-moral-view-of-the-origin-and-progress-of-the-french-revolution

Wollstonecraft, M. 1787. Thoughts on the Education of Daughters: With Reflections on Female Conduct, in the More Important Duties of Life. Joseph Johnson. London, 160 pp. Available at: https://archive.org/details/thoughtsoneduca00unkngoog/page/n5

Wollstonecraft, M. 1788. Mary: A Fiction. Joseph Johnson, London. Available at: https://archive.org/details/mary_1405_librivox/mary_00_wollsto­necraft_128kb.mp3

Wollstonecraft, M. 1790. A Vindication of the Rights of Men, in a Letter to the Right Honourable Edmund Burke. London: Joseph Johnson. Available at: Online Library of Liberty. A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. URL: https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/wollstonecraft-a-vindication-of-the-rights-of-men

Wollstonecraft, M. 1796. Letters Written during a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway and Denmark. Joseph Johnson, London. Available at: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/3529

Wollstonecraft, M. 1796. Original Stories from Real Life: With Conversation Calculated to Regulate the Affections and Form the Mind to Truth and Goodness. Joseph Johnson, London, 178 pp. Available at: https://archive.org/details/origi­nalstories00wollgoog/page/n13

Wollstonecraft, M. and Janet Todd [Ed.]. 2003. The Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft. Columbia University Press, New York. 2003.

Wollstonecraft, M. and Jonathan Bennett [ed.]. 2017. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman with Strictures on Moral and Political Subjects. Available at: https://www.earlymoderntexts.com/assets/pdfs/wollstonecraft1792.pdf.


GOST Style Citations


Burke E. Reflections on the Revolution on France, 1790. URL: https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/macaulay-reflections-on-the-revolution-in-france (дата звернення: 01.09.2018).

 

Canuel Mark. Wollstonecraft and World Improvement. Wordsworth Circle, 2010. Vol. 41, No 3, Summer. URL: https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-240729248/wollstonecraft-and-world-improvement (дата звернення: 14.09.2018).

 

Cayton Andrew. Love in the Time of Revolution: Transatlantic Literary Radicalism and Historical Change, 1793-1818, Williamsburg, Virginia: University of North Carolina Press, Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2013. 368 pp.

 

Clemit P. A. and Walker G. L. William Godwin, memoirs of the author of 'A vindication of the rights of woman', Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press. Broadview Literary Texts, 2001.

 

Feminist Interpretations of Mary Wollstonecraft / Falco M. J. [Ed.]. PA: Penn State Press. University Park, 1996.

 

Ferguson M. Colonialism and Gender from Mary Wollstonecraft to Jamaica Kincaid: East Caribbean Connections. Columbia University Press, 1994.

 

Johnson C. The Cambridge Companion to Mary Wollstonecraft. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

 

Kaplan C. Pandora’s Box: Subjectivity, Class and Sexuality in Socialist Feminist Criticism. In: Making a Difference / Green, G. (Ed.), Kahn, C. (Ed.). London: Routledge, 1985. 288 p.

 

Kelly G. Revolutionary Feminism: The Mind and Career of Mary Wollstonecraft. New York: St. Martin’s, 1992.

 

Myers M. Sensibility and the “Walk of Reason”: Mary Wollstonecraft’s Literary Reviews as Cultural Critique. Rutherford: Dickinson University Press, 1990.

 

O'Neill W. The Women's Movement: Feminism in the United States and England. Routlege Library Editions: Women’s History, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203102817.

 

Poovey M. The Proper Lady and the Woman Writer: Ideology as Style in the Works of Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelly and Jane Austin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

 

Rousseau J.-J. Emile, or On Education, 1762. URL: https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/rousseau-emile-or-education (дата звернення: 19.09.2018).

 

Sapiro V. A Vindication of Political Virtue: The Political Theory of Mary Wollstonecraft. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

 

Steinbach S. Women in England 1760-1914: A Social History. London: Orion Publishing Co, 2005. 352 p.

 

Taylor B. Mary Wollstonecraft and the Feminist Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. 331 р.

 

The Guardian. The Original Suffragette: the Extraordinary Mary Wollstonecraft by Bee Rowlatt. The Women’s Blog, 2015, October. URL: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/womens-blog/2015/oct/05/original-suffragette-mary-wollstonecraft (дата звернення: 11.09.2018).

 

Todd J. Mary Wollstonecraft: A Revolutionary Life. Columbia University Press, 2000. 538 p.

 

Tomalin C. The Life and Death of Mary Wollstonecraft. New York: Penguin, 1992.

 

Wollstonecraft M. An Historical and Moral View of the French Revolution; and the Effect It Has produced in Europe. London: Joseph Johnson, 1795. 226 p. URL: https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/wollstonecraft-an-historical-and-moral-view-of-the-origin-and-progress-of-the-french-revolution (дата звернення: 30.08.2018).

 

Wollstonecraft M. Thoughts on the Education of Daughters: With Reflections on Female Conduct, in the More Important Duties of Life. London: Joseph Johnson, 1787, 160 pp. URL: https://archive.org/details/thoughtsoneduca00unkngoog/page/n5 (дата звернення: 11.08.2018).

 

Wollstonecraft M. Mary: A Fiction. London: Joseph Johnson, 1788. URL: https://archive.org/details/mary_1405_librivox/mary_00_wollsto­necraft_128kb.mp3 (дата звернення: 13.08.2018).

 

Wollstonecraft M. A Vindication of the Rights of Men, in a Letter to the Right Honourable Edmund Burke. London: Joseph Johnson, 1790. Online Library of Liberty. A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. URL: https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/wollstonecraft-a-vindication-of-the-rights-of-men (дата звернення: 17.08.2018).

 

Wollstonecraft M. Letters Written during a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway and Denmark. London: Joseph Johnson, 1796. URL: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/3529 (дата звернення: 27.08.2018).

 

Wollstonecraft M. Original Stories from Real Life: With Conversation Calculated to Regulate the Affections and Form the Mind to Truth and Goodness. London: Joseph Johnson, 1796. 178 pp. URL: https://archive.org/details/origi­nalstories00wollgoog/page/n13 (дата звернення: 25.08.2018).

 

The Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft / Wollstonecraft M. and Janet Todd [Ed.]. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

 

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman with Strictures on Moral and Political Subjects / Wollstonecraft M. and Jonathan Bennett [ed.]. 2017. URL: https://www.earlymoderntexts.com/assets/pdfs/wollstonecraft1792.pdf (дата звернення: 15.08.2018).