Methodology of the research of the conflation in the Epistle to Galatians


  • Taras Dyatlik National Pedagogical Dragomanov University, Ukraine



conflation, simplum, duplum, difflation, Epistle to Galatians, theological methodology


The article is devoted to the study of theological methodology of the phenomenon of conflation in the text of the Epistle to Galatians. The issue of conflation was earnestly introduced into the field of New Testament textual criticism by Westcott and Hort in the late nineteenth century. Conflation is always the longest variant that is tertiary in origin and consists of the primary (authentic reading) and secondary (secondary variant) simpla. There is a set of the variants which seem to have appeared on account of such possible reasons as doctrinal alteration or harmonization, or syntactical improvement. In the tentative analysis of the candidates for conflation, the eight longest variant readings from the Epistle to Galatians are examined according to the methodology described in the introductory part of the investigation, so as to find out whether they can be regarded as conflations, difflations, or variants which emerged by "addition and omission".

Author Biography

Taras Dyatlik, National Pedagogical Dragomanov University

Competitor of the Department of Cultural Studies, a chairman of a non-governmental organization "Euro-Asian Theological Association"


Aland, K. and Aland, B. 1989. The Text of the New Testament: an Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. 2nd ed., rev. and enl. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Compan,Grand Rapids,MI.

Bauer, Walter. 2000. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature.UniversityofChicagoPress,ChicagoandLondon. DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226028958.001.0001.

Black, D. A. 1994. New Testament Textual Criticism: A Concise GuideGrand Rapids, Baker Books, MI.

Comfort, Philip W., and Barrett, David P., eds. 2001. The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts: A Corrected, Enlarged Edition of the Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts. Tyndale House Publishers,Wheaton,ILL.

Greenlee, Harold J. 1995. Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism. 2nd rev. ed. Hendrickson Publishers,Peabody,MA.

Metzger, Bruce M.1994. ATextual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. 2nd ed. United Bible Societies,Stuttgart.

Metzger, Bruce M. 1992. The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration. 3rd ed. enl.OxfordUniversityPress,Oxford.

Aland, Barbara (eds), Aland, Kurt (eds), Karavidopoulos, Johannes (eds), Martini, Carlo M. (eds), and Metzger, Bruce M. (eds) 1999. Novum Testamentum Graece et Latine, 27th ed. corr. Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart.

Aland, Barbara (eds), Aland, Kurt (eds), Karavidopoulos, Johannes (eds), Martini, Carlo M. (eds), and Metzger, Bruce M. (eds) 1994. The Greek New Testament 4th rev. ed. United Bible Societies,Stuttgart.

Tischendorff, C. 1872. Novum Testamentum Graece, vol. 2. Giesecke and Devrient, Leipzig. DOI: 10.1017/cbo9781139854627.

Waltz, Robert B. "A Site Inspired by the Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism". Available at: (Accessed: 11.04.2018)

Westcott, B. F., and Hort, F. J. A. 1988. Introduction to the New Testament in the Original Greek: with Notes on Selected Readings. Harper and Brothers, 1882; reprint, New York, Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA. DOI: 10.1017/cbo9780511706479.002.




How to Cite

Dyatlik, T. (2018). Methodology of the research of the conflation in the Epistle to Galatians. Skhid, (3(155), 74–77.