Theodicy of Benedictus Spinoza


  • Bohdan Zavidnyak Ukrainian Catholic University, Ukraine



The God, Ideas, proofs for God, Spinoza's God, panentheism, ehtics, ontology, Metaphysics, Theodicy, Natural Theology, transcendence, Truth, contemplation


This article examines Baruch Benedictus Spinoza conceptual understanding of the proofs for the existence of God. It traces the evolution of this theme pursuant to the metaphysical studies of Moderns Philosophy. Тhe concept of God in the philosophy of Spinoza is considered by exploring the nature of the relations between the transcendent sphere of God and the spiritual world of the human person. Spinoza argues from the possibility of God's existence to God's necessary existence. God is an absolutely infinite substance, necessarily exists, qua Natura Naturans is immutable. God or Nature. The universe is an expression of God's nature, qua Natura Naturata - God is its immanent cause. Spinoza's God is synonymous with Nature. Substance is defined as "in itself". Spinoza understands a substance to be something that is self-caused and self-explained. The transcendence is understood as an ontological category, being discussed in connection with the key themes of Christian philosophy (Anry Bergson, Moris Blondel and Wladimir Soloviev), such as time and eternity, person and history, creation and God etc. Spinoza's concept of God is referring to the God of the monotheistic religions, God as One Substance, pertains to a concept of the oneness of God, is transcendent and therefore "unknowable". Spinoza's definition of God found on the first page of the Ethics: Being absolutely infinite. From the point of view of historiography, the role of the book "Ehtics" by Spinoza is highlighted. 

Author Biography

Bohdan Zavidnyak, Ukrainian Catholic University



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How to Cite

Zavidnyak, B. (2018). Theodicy of Benedictus Spinoza. Skhid, (6(152), 91–97.