5 Sola Reformation. Theological principles of heterogenious protestantism





Sola Scriptura, Sola gratia, Sola fide, Solus Christus, Soli Deo Gloria, Magisterial Reformation, Radical Reformation, Luther, Eastern Christianity, Western Christianity


The paper displays the religious and theological foundations, which initiated the reformation process with the help of nowadays popular markers known as 5 Sola of Reformation. It demonstrates the main theological principles which identify Protestantism among other religious groups. But simultaneously the hermeneutics of these principles divides Protestantism into many currents, which forms this religious movement heterogeneity. The main focus of the article lays on the comparative description of each of five features of the theological system of Reformed theology in the understanding of masters and radical reformation. The history of formation of 5 Sola and its theological meaning are analyzed as well.

The paper's main interest is focused on the basic formal principle of all the Protestant movement - Sola Scriptura. The author of the article describes the Postmodern society challenges faced by this principle, he demonstrates what it does and what it does not mean in contemporary Evangelical movement. The meaning of Sola gratia as a formation point of Lutheran theological system is exposed, a different understanding of faith and interpretation of the principle of Sola fide in magisterial and radical Protestantism is exposed, the peculiarities of application of the principles of Solus Christus and Soli Deo Gloria in Eastern and Western Christian traditions.

Author Biography

Serhii Sannіkov, Center for the Study of Religions, National Pedagogical Dragomanov University

Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Doctor of theology, Senior Research Fellow


Bevzyuk, N. P. (2011), Religious and Ecclesiastical Foundations for Reformation in Scientific Proceedings of Tavria National University named after V.I. Vernadsky, T. 24 (63), 2. (rus).

Bender, G. S. (2012), Anabaptist Principles in S. Sannikov (Ed.). Menno Simons and Anabaptists, Samenkorn. (rus).

St. Andrew’s Biblical Institute Theological, available at: http://standrews.ru/internet-magazin/bogoslovie-i-nauka. (rus).

Bergman, Ingmar (1963), Winter Light, available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_nWUxirX7pM.

Koval, T., Ethics of Orthodox Labour, available at: http://ecsocman.hse.ru/data/441/176/1217/006_KOVAL.pdf. (rus).

Lyuter, M. (1994), To the Christian Nobles of German Nation in Lyuter M. The Time of Silence Has Gone: Selected Works 1520-1526,Kharkov, Oko, 352 p. (rus).

Lyuter, M. (1997), Lectures on the Epistle to the Galathians, Moscow, Fond «Lyuteranskoe nasledie».

Magrat, A. (1994), Theological Reformation Thought, Bogomyslie, Odessa. (rus).

Meyendorf, I.(10 July 1963), Significance of Reformation as an Event in Christian History on Meeting of Commission “Fiath and Ecclesiastical Order”, Monreal, available at: http://lib.pravmir.ru/library/readbook/1170. (rus).

Merezhkovskiy, D. S. (1999), The Reformers: Luther, Calvin, Pascal, Tomsk, Vodoley, 448 p. (rus).

Divine Revelation, The Explanation to the Text “Catechism of Catholic Church”, available at: http://www.teologia.pl/ros/i-o-000.htm. (rus).

Riker, P. (2002), The Conflict of Interpretations: Essays in Hermeneutics, Moscow, Kanon-press-tsentr. (rus).

Sannikov, S. (2001), Twenty Centuries of Christianity, SPb, Odessa, Izd-vo OBS «Bogomyslie». (rus).

Christian Scientific and Apologetical Center, available at: http://scienceandapologetics.com/. (rus).

Shestov, L. I. (2013), Sola fide - by Faith Alone, Ripol Klassik. (rus).

The Schleitheim Confession in S. Sannikov (Ed.). (2012), Menno Simons and Anabaprists, Samenkorn. (rus).

Balmer, R. H. (2002), Encyclopedia of evangelicalism, Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 654 p. DOI: 10.1177/001452460211400310.

Bettenson, H. (ed.) (1963), Documents of the Christian Church [2nd ed.], Oxford, Oxford UP.

Cambridge Declaration Heritage and Resources, The Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals, available at: http://www.alliancenet.org/cambridge-declaration.

Childs, B. S. (1970), Biblical Theology in Crisis, Westminster Press.

Childs, B. S. (1974), The Book of Exodus : A Critical, Theological Commentary, Westminster John Knox Press, [repr. 2004].

Childs, B. S. (1984), The New Testament as Canon: An Introduction, Philadelphia, Fortress.

Corzine, J. (2012), The Source of the Solas: On the Question of Which are the Original Solas in J. Corzine, B. Wolfmueller (Ed.), Theology is Eminently Practical : Essays in Honor of John T. Pless,Fort Wayne, Indiana, Lutheran Legacy Press.

Geisler, N. L. (1999), Baker encyclopedia of Christian apologetics, Baker Books.

Glodo, M. J. Sola Ecclesia: The Lost Reformation Doctrine, available at: http://www.the-highway.com/articleApr06.html.

Leonardi, R. Sola fide? Sola caritas, available at: http://richleonardi.blogspot.com/2008/11/sola-fide-sola-caritas.html.

McGrath, A. (2007), Christianity’s dangerous idea, The Protestant Revolution - A History from the 16 th to the 21 st Century.

Meadors, G. T. (Ed.), Gundry S. N. (Series Ed.) (2009), Four Views on Moving beyond the Bible to Theology, Zondervan.

Metz, J. B. (Ed.) (1965), The Church and the world, Paulist Press, 6.

Murrey, S. (2009), Biblical Interpritation among the Anabaptist Reformers in Hauser A. J., Watson D. F., A History of Biblical Interpretation, 2, The Medieval through the Reformation Periods, Grand Rapids, MI, Eerdmans.

Packer, J. I. (1973), “Sola Scriptura” in History and Today in John W. Montgomery (ed.), God’s Inerrant Word: An International Symposium on the Trustworthiness of Scripture, Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, Inc., available at: http://www.ccel.us/godsinerrantword.ch2.html.

Pannenberg, W. (1963), The Crisis of the Scripture-Principle in Protestant Theology, Dialog, 2.

Prof. Engelder (1916), The Three Principles of the Reformation in Prof. W. H. T. Dau (ed.), Four Hundred Years : Commemorative Essays on the Reformation of Dr. Martin Luther and Its Blessed Results, Concordia Publishing House.

Thorsen, D., Solus Gratia, Solus Fide, and Solus Scriptura: Reforming Protestant Principles to Serve the Present Age, Oxford Institute of Methodist Theological Studies, available at: https://oimts.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/2007-4-thorsen.pdf.

Wells, D. F. (1993), No Place for Truth: or Whatever Happened to Evangelical Theology?, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.

Williams, G. H. (1995), The Radical Reformation (3rd Ed.: Sixteenth Century Essays & Studies), Truman State University Press.



How to Cite

Sannіkov S. (2017). 5 Sola Reformation. Theological principles of heterogenious protestantism. Skhid, (3(149), 83–92. https://doi.org/10.21847/1728-9343.2017.3(149).108347