DEVELOPMENT OF UTOPIAN THOUGHT IN ANCIENT CHINA (EASTERN ZHOU ERA): HISTORICAL AND TYPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
Keywords:"golden age", Confucius, Mo-tzu, utopia, utopian ideal, utopianism, uchronia
AbstractThe article is devoted to the formation of utopian thought in the history of ancient China. The chronological framework of the topic covers the period of the Eastern Zhou era (770 - 256 BC). The historical preconditions for the emergence of utopia and its features are revealed. Emphasis is placed on the affinity of utopian thought of the region with the ethical and philosophical currents of the time, the peculiarities of worldview. The author draws attention to the relevance of this topic, which is explained by the existing debate in modern humanities about the existence of utopia and utopianism in ancient China. The idea of the presence of certain elements of utopian thought, starting with Confucius and Mo-Tzu, whose works later became the basis for the development of utopia in the future. The methodological basis of the work revealed the main roots of the utopian ideal, to substantiate the characteristics of utopia in line with socio-political thought China. Generic signs of utopia were revealed. It is shown that these features are the product of a socio-political crisis (the fragmentation of the state into warring kingdoms, social contradictions of property and legal nature between social strata). Hence the idea of the "golden age" as an idealized past, the opposite of the real (modern) rolling situation. Weak political power causes the emergence in utopia of the image of a strong wise (and perfectly wise) ruler, who is helped to rule by wise and pious people. In support of this, the article quotes Mo-Tzu, who assesses reality with a degree of pessimism and, putting forward an altruistic idea of universal love, does not believe in its realization. As a result, among the typological features of utopian thought in ancient China are criticism, idealization of the "ideal" past, compensatory (utopia inspires hope) and timeless (ukhronia).
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